Part I

A woman carrying out the heavy work of havesting black cardamom (Thao Qua). Once cut, the fruits are collected in wicker baskets carried on the worker’s backs and later transported to a campsite for drying. Credit: Ian Teh.


In 2016, at the thirteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP 13), Parties welcomed the first edition and requested a second edition to be launched in conjunction with the fifth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-5) in 2020. Local Biodiversity Outlooks 2: The contributions of indigenous peoples and local communities to the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 and to renewing nature and cultures (LBO-2), a complement to GBO-5, has been prepared in response to that request through a collaboration of the International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity, the Indigenous Women’s Biodiversity Network, the Centres of Distinction on Indigenous and Local Knowledge, Forest Peoples Programme and the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. It brings together information and case studies from indigenous peoples, local communities and community-based organisations around the world, with information from published academic and non-academic sources. 

The structure of LBO-2 is set out below. 

Report structure

This report is structured as follows:

  • Key messages
  • Part 1: Introduction 
  • Part 2: Progress during the UN Decade for Biodiversity 2011–2020
  • Part 3: Biodiversity, climate change and sustainable development 
  • Part 4: Transitions towards living in harmony with nature 
  • Part 5: IPLC contributions to the 2050 vision


Part 1 provides an introduction and overview of the report’s contents, background and structure.


Part 2 follows a similar format to LBO-1: it consists of 20 chapters, each of which presents the perspectives and experiences of IPLCs in relation to one of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets. It comprises the collective input, research and wisdom of a diverse group of indigenous and non-indigenous authors. From their contexts and experiences across all regions of the world, they have brought together assessments of progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets which incorporate and reflect the knowledge and perspectives of indigenous peoples and local communities, both in the narrative text and in an extensive range of case studies. What they have found, and demonstrate here, is that progress towards the targets is patchy, inconsistent and hampered by political and economic factors built in to dominant economic, cultural and production models. With the ongoing negotiations towards a post-2020 global biodiversity framework, it is crucial that the lessons learnt in implementing the Aichi Biodiversity Targets are carefully studied; consequently, for each target, recommendations and opportunities to do just that are presented. Each chapter includes a brief outline of what the target means for IPLCs, their contributions and experiences in relation to the target, key messages, and an outline of opportunities and recommended actions. 


Part 3 illustrates the holistic views and approaches of IPLCs in addressing the interrelated crises in biodiversity, climate change and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It elaborates on how a human-rights-based approach and an ecosystem-based approach can converge to provide solutions. It describes some IPLC contributions and concerns that relate to the SDGs.


Part 4 builds on Parts 2 and 3, and sets out a series of six interconnected transitions that emerge from the recommendations and needs of IPLCs, and that are essential to progress towards the 2050 vision of ‘living in harmony with nature’. 


Part 5 closes with statements about IPLC contributions to the 2050 vision.


A cautionary note

Among indigenous peoples, it is a common protocol of respect that people be allowed to tell their own stories in their own ways. In a global assessment, this is not possible. Within the seven indigenous socio-cultural regions recognised by the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, there is considerable diversity. It is precisely this diversity that we wish to protect and nurture, but it is difficult to reflect it fairly in a brief review. Therefore, while this report reflects the experiences of its authors and collators, and the views and policy recommendations received from IPLCs across the world, readers should consult directly with the people whose stories are included here to understand their concepts, interpretations and needs, and to ensure that these people directly participate in the design and implementation of policies.